Переводы документов. Translations in English

NP-002-15. Safety Rules During Treatment of Radioactive Wastes from Nuclear Power Plants

NP-002-15

Approved by

the Order of the Federal

Environmental, Industrial

and Nuclear Supervision Service

dated January 30, 2015 No. 35

 

FEDERAL RULES AND REGULATIONS

IN THE AREA OF ATOMIC ENERGY USE "SAFETY

RULES DURING TREATMENT OF RADIOACTIVE WASTES

FOR NUCLEAR POWER PLANTS"

 

(NP-002-15)

 

I. Purpose and scope of application

 

1. These Federal codes and standards in the area of atomic energy use “Safety Rules During Treatment of Radioactive Wastes from Nuclear Power Plants” (NP-002-15) (hereinafter referred to as the Safety Rules) are developed in accordance with Federal Law No. 170-FZ “On Atomic Energy Use” dated November 21, 1995 (Collected Acts of the Russian Federation N 48, 1995, art. 4552; 1997, N 7, art. 808; 2001, N 29, art. 2949; 2002, N 1, art. 2; N 13, art. 1180; 2003, N 46, art. 4436; 2004, N 35, art. 3607; 2006, N 52, art. 5498; 2007, N 7, art. 834; N 49, art. 6079; 2008, N 29, art. 3418; N 30, art. 3616; 2009, N 1, art. 17; N 52, art. 6450; 2011, N 29, art. 4281; N 30, art. 4590, art. 4596; N 45, art. 6333; N 48, art. 6732; N 49, art. 7025; 2012, N 26, art. 3446; 2013, N 27, art. 3451), Federal Law No. 190-FZ "On Radioactive Waste Tretment and Amendment of Certain Regulatory Acts of the Russian Federation" dated July 11, 2011 (Collected Acts of the Russian Federation, 2011, N 29, art. 4281; 2013, N 27, art. 3480), Decree of the Government of the Russian Federation No. 1511 “On approval of Regulation on development and approval of Federal codes and standards in the area of atomic energy use” dated December 1, 1997 (Collected Acts of the Russian Federation, 1997, N 49, art. 5600; 1999, N 27, art. 3380; 2000, N 28, art. 2981; 2002, N 4, art. 325; N 44, art. 4392; 2003, N 40, art. 3899; 2005, N 23, art. 2278; 2006, N 50, art. 5346; 2007, N 14, art. 1692; N 46, art. 5583; 2008, N 15, art. 1549; 2012, N 51, art. 7203).

2. These Safety Rules establish the requirements for safety assurance during treatment of radioactive wastes (hereinafter - RW) from nuclear power plants (hereinafter - NPPs).

3. These Safety Rules shall be applicable to designed, constructed and operated NPPs.

 

II. General requirements for safety assurance

during treatment of radioactive wastes from nuclear power plants

 

4. In the course of NPP RW treatment any radiation exposure for the workers (personnel) and the public shall be reduced to the minimal achievable level with due regard for the requirements of sanitary rules and radiation safety standards as well as economic and social factors.

5. Safety in the course of NPP RW tretment shall be assured by systematic implementation of the defense in depth principle in accordance with the requirements of federal regulations and rules in the area of atomic energy use.

6. The system of barriers during NPP RW treatment shall include enclosures of rooms and storage facilities, walls of RW-containing vessels (equipment), containers and pipelines and the form of conditioned RW.

7. Under normal operation conditions all barriers and their protection means shall be operable and shall comply with any requirements prescribed for them. Number and purpose of the barriers shall be defined and substantiated in the NPP design documentation (hereinafter referred to as the NPP design).

8. Collection, segregation, processing, conditioning and storage of radioactive wastes under normal operation conditions and in case of any NPP operational occurrences including design basis accidents shall be provided.

9. NPP RW are classified in accordance with their radionuclide composition, specific activity, aggregate state, physical and chemical properties, methods of processing and disposal.

10. In accordance with their aggregate state NPP RW are classified into the following categories: liquid, solid and gaseous.

Gaseous radioactive wastes (hereinafter - GRW) include gaseous media unsuitable for further use and containing radionuclides in the form of aerosols and (or) inert radioactive gases and (or) molecular iodine, its organic or inorganic compounds with the volumetric activity exceeding acceptable limits of volumetric activity established by the regulations.

Liquid radioactive wastes (hereinafter - LRW) include organic and inorganic liquids, pulps and sludges unsuitable for further use and containing radionuclides in the amounts exceeding acceptable specific activity limits for wastes established by the regulations.

Solid radioactive wastes (hereinafter - SRW) include any materials and substances and also equipment and items (particularly spent ionizing radiation sources) unsuitable for further use and containing radionuclides in the amounts exceeding acceptable specific activity limits for wastes established by the regulations.

11. NPP LRW are classified in accordance with:

radionuclide composition and specific activity - into low-level, medium-level and high-level;

physical and chemical properties - into homogeneous and heterogeneous, organic (oils, water emulsions of oils, detergent solutions) and inorganic particularly low-salt water solutions (with salt concentration below 10 g/l), high-salt water solutions (with salt concentration exceeding 10 g/l), flammable and non-flammable;

processing methods substantiated in the NPP design - into the wastes supplied for filtration, sorption, evaporation, solidification (LRW bringing into solid aggregate state in order to reduce the possibility of radionuclide migration into the environment).

12. NPP SRW are classified in accordance with:

radionuclide composition and specific activity - into very low level RW, low level, medium level and high level ones;

processing methods substantiated in the NPP design - into the wastes subject to incineration (combustible), size reduction (grindable), remelt (meltable), pressing (pressable) and non-processable;

physical and chemical properties - into flammable, low-combustible and non-flammable;

disposal methods - into classes in compliance with the regulations.

13. Attribution of NPP wastes to radioactive wastes and their classification according to disposal methods shall be carried out in compliance with the criteria established by Decree of the Government of the Russian Federation No. 1069 dated October 19, 2012 "On criteria for attribution of solid, liquid and gaseous wastes to radioactive wastes, criteria for attribution of radioactive wastes to special radioactive wastes and to disposable radioactive wastes and criteria for classification of disposable radioactive wastes" (Collected Acts of the Russian Federation, 2012, N 44, art, 6017; 2015, N 6, art. 974). Classification of wastes into very low-level (for SRW), low-, medium- and high-level RW according to radionuclide composition, specific activity and surface contamination level (for SRW) shall be carried out in compliance with the criteria established in the sanitary rules and hygienic norms of radiation safety.

 

III. Safety requirements implemented

in designing of the radioactive waste management systems

for nuclear power plants

 

General requirements

 

14. The NPP design shall provide for the following:

fire and explosion safety assurance at all stages of RW treatment;

reliable and safe storage of reagents used for RW processing;

possibility of decontamination and (or) dismantling of the RW management systems (components);

use of low-waste technologies and closed process cycles for RW tretment;

prevention of any uncontrolled discharges of radioactive substances into the environment (water bodies, aquifers, wells, boreholes, ground surface) as well as into soil systems and open drains;

reduction of unbalance water discharges to the reasonable minimum through its use for the process needs of the NPP in the course of RW treatment;

prevention of contamination of non-radioactive NPP process media with radioactive substances;

collection, segregation, processing, conditioning and storage of radioactive wastes;

engineering features and administrative measures aimed to prevent discharges of radioactive substances into the atmospheric air in the amounts exceeding the maximum permissible release limits established in accordance with the regulations;

engineering features and administrative measures aimed to prevent discharges of radioactive substances into the atmospheric air in the amounts exceeding the maximum permissible discharge limits established in accordance with the regulations.

15. The NPP design shall:

determine the sources, quantity, physical and chemical properties and radionuclide composition of GRW, LRW and SRW;

define the planned annual quantity of generated GRW, LRW and SRW and their activity by individual radionuclides;

assess the composition and quantity of RW generated in case of design basis accidents;

establish the permissible amounts of LRW and SRW to be stored at the NPP site, justify the time limits for their storage, radionuclide composition, activity values for LRW and SRW as well as their storage places (rooms, facilities).

16. The NPP design shall:

provide for concentration of SRW and LRW in the equipment (tanks) and dedicated and specially equipped locations (collection);

provide for operations to separate SRW and LRW with due regard for their radiation, chemical and/or physical properties (segregation);

substantiate selection of the process systems intended for collection and (or) storage, (or) processing and (or) conditioning, and (or) transportation of radioactive wastes (RW management systems);

substantiate reliability of protective barriers;

establish safe operation limits and conditions for the RW  management systems and the measures to be implemented in case of any deviations from these limits and conditions;

provide for decommissioning of the RW management systems and equipment.

17. The NPP design shall provide for the possibility to perform direct and complete inspection of the RW management systems (components) for compliance with the design characteristics.

18. The NPP design shall provide for radiological and process monitoring at all RW treatment stages including:

methods and means for control of chemical and radionuclide composition of radioactive wastes and quality control for physical and chemical states of conditioned RW;

representative sampling of LRW and their analysis at all treatment stages;

representative sampling of GRW and their analysis including hydrogen content monitoring;

radiological and process monitoring of efficiency for active water treatment and gas treatment systems;

methods and means for measurement of SRW radiation characteristics (gamma radiation dose rate, specific activity of beta-emitting isotopes, surface contamination).

19. The design of NPPs using alkaline metals as coolant shall provide for techniques and equipment in order to bring radioactive wastes containing alkaline metals into fire- and explosion-safe state for subsequent conditioning.

Processing and conditioning systems for radioactive wastes containing alkaline metals shall be located in isolated rooms. Hydrogen content in the gas phase shall be monitored at all treatment stages for radioactive wastes containing alkaline metals.

20. Design and layout of the RW treatment equipment and pipelines shall provide the possibility for their inspection, repair, hydraulic (pneumatic) testing, control of metal and weld joints after manufacturing (installation) and in the course of operation.

The following provisions shall be made in RW treatment:

collection of leakages and spillages eliminating any radioactivity release beyond the installed barriers;

the minimal possible length of pipelines and the minimal possible number of valves, welded and detachable joints;

absence of any non-drained dead zones;

availability of flushing devices for the pipelines transporting radioactive high-salt solutions, resins, sludges and other similar media.

21. The RW management systems shall be equipped with instrumentation and control means enabling to monitor the processes, to control them efficiently and to prevent any uncontrolled release of radionuclides into the environment. For this purpose the NPP design shall provide:

registration (recording) of all parameters necessary for control and monitoring of the processes;

warning and emergency alarm, relevant interlocks and means of protection;

computer-aided control of start-up, operation and shut-down for equipment and components of the systems.

22. The NPP design shall provide for fixed installations or structures (storage facilities) intended for safe and reliable controlled temporary housing (storage) of non-conditioned and conditioned radioactive wastes in accordance with the established requirements within the time limits specified in the NPP design and with a view of their subsequent removal.

The NPP design shall provide for installation of any systems and equipment necessary for RW treatment in the storage facilities.

Design of the storage facilities shall prevent any release of radionuclides into the environment in the amounts exceeding the limits established in accordance with the requirements of sanitary rules and radiation safety standards.

23. The NPP design shall provide for the measures to ensure safe transportation of radioactive wastes at the NPP site including:

usage of lifting and conveying equipment, its maintenance, inspection, repair and decontamination;

radiation protection;

radiological control of gamma radiation dose rates and surface contamination of the packaging sets (containers) with radioactive wastes (RW packages);

usage of special-purpose vehicles for transportation of radioactive wastes;

transportation of RW along the routes specified in the NPP in accordance with the transportation flow chart for the NPP site;

24. The NPP design shall provide for the possibility to transport radioactive wastes for processing and (or) conditioning and (or) disposal outside of the NPP site.

25. The NPP design shall provide for usage of conditioning containers that have passed conformance evaluation in accordance with the legislation of the Russian Federation and the requirements of federal regulations and rules in the area of atomic energy use.

Design and structural materials of the containers shall have mechanical strength and resistance to corrosion damage sufficient to provide safety of the RW form in the course of transportation at the NPP site and storage at the NPP within the time limits established in the NPP design as well as during RW transportation for disposal.

The scope, methods and means to control compliance of radioactive wastes (RW package, unpackaged RW) with the RW acceptance criteria for disposal shall be defined in the NPP design.

 

Liquid radioactive waste management systems

 

26. Collection, processing, storage and conditioning of liquid radioactive wastes shall be performed in accordance with the requirements of these Safety Rules and other federal regulations and rules in the area of atomic energy use. The NPP design shall provide for the following:

controlled collection and separate temporary storage of all liquid radioactive wastes generated at the NPP depending on their specific activity, radionuclide and chemical composition and presence of solid particles;

LRW processing systems;

LRW conditioning systems.

27. Design and structural materials of the LRW storage tanks shall provide their service life at least equal to the design (specified) lifetime of the NPP.

28. Volume of the LRW storage tanks shall provide holdup of liquid radioactive wastes for at least three months prior to their conditioning in order to reduce LRW activity due to decay of short-lived radionuclides.

29. LRW storage tanks shall be equipped with:

pipelines and valves for LRW receipt, supply for processing and (or) conditioning and emptying of the tanks;

instrumentation for in-process monitoring of temperature, pressure, LRW level in the tanks, high level alarm for the tanks including monitoring of LRW leakages from the tanks;

sampling devices enabling to take samples along the entire height of the tank;

devices for removal of sludge (residue) and depositions from the tanks where formation of low-solubility sedimentations is possible;

equipment and pipelines for pumping of solutions, sludges, absorbents from one tank to another;

devices for prevention of LRW overflow from the tanks into the rooms;

process venting;

means for hydrogen concentration monitoring and alarm for exceedance of the established limits of its content in the void space of tanks where formation of explosion-hazardous hydrogen concentration is possible;

devices preventing damage of tanks in case of pressure increase inside them or in the course of vacuumizing.

Design of the tanks shall enable search for leakage points and performance of repair works.

30. Rooms where tanks for LRW storage are located shall have at least three-layered waterproofing and stainless steel lining. A lined room shall have the volume sufficient to accommodate the entire quantity of LRW in the tanks. The state of the metal of the lining and weld joints of the lining is subject to periodical inspections by means of non-destructive tests. The scope and frequency of inspections are established in the NPP design pursuant to requirements in the regulatory documents.

31. The NPP design shall substantiate the distance between the bottom level of the LRW storage tank and the groundwater level. Monitoring wells for groundwater sampling shall be arranged around the rooms with LRW storage tanks. Number and location of these wells as well as frequency of sampling shall be substantiated in the NPP design with due regard for hydrogeological conditions at the NPP site.

32. The following shall be provided in the rooms with LRW storage tanks:

alarm for leakages from the tanks;

leakage collection and recycling system;

ventilation;

possibility for decontamination;

radiological control.

33. Water chemistry regime shall be maintained in the LRW storage tanks in order to assure their safe and reliable operation without accumulation of any salt depositions within the NPP service life specified in the design documentation.

34. The NPP design shall provide for redundant storage tanks for liquid radioactive wastes generated due to any accidents; the minimum redundant volume of these tanks shall be substantiated. Redundant tanks and the rooms where they are located shall be subject to the same requirements as applied to the main tanks.

35. The NPP design shall provide for monitoring of LRW characteristics at all stages of their treatment including:

LRW delivered to the temporary storage facilities;

LRW supplied for processing and conditioning;

RW after processing and (or) conditioning.

36. The NPP design shall provide for continuous monitoring of radioactive substance discharges to the environment particularly:

total activity and volumetric activity of the contained radionuclides included into the list compiled in accordance with the regulations;

flow rates and temperatures of the discharges.

 

Solid radioactive waste management systems

 

37. Collection, segregation, processing, storage and conditioning of solid radioactive wastes shall be carried out in accordance with the requirements of these Safety Rules and any other regulations governing safety assurance in the course of SRW management. The NPP design shall provide for the following:

collection of radioactive wastes separately from non-radioactive ones;

SRW collection in special-purpose rooms;

SRW segregation in accordance with their classification;

usage of containers, lifting and conveying equipment and special-purpose vehicles for SRW transportation.

38. Preliminary segregation of SRW shall be carried out on the basis of the criteria established in the regulatory documents for the radioactive contamination level and the gamma-emission dose rate at the distance of 0.1 m from their surface.

39. The NPP design shall provide for SRW pressing, combustion of flammable SRW, size reduction (cutting) of large-scale SRW and bringing of fine and powdery SRW into stable state.

40. SRW storage facilities shall be provided in the NPP design. Barriers of the storage facilities shall prevent any releases of radionuclides into the environment exceeding the limits established in the sanitary rules and hygienic norms of radiation safety.

41. The NPP design shall provide for the following:

equipment for removal of non-conditioned SRW from storage facilities;

possibility for inspection, revision and removal of conditioned and non-conditioned RW packages from the storage facilities;

remote control of RW package movement in case of increased gamma radiation dose rates;

drainage systems for collection of any potential leakages;

separate location of SRW in accordance with the classification;

location of SRW packages in certain places of the storage facilities.

Storage conditions shall not result in any damage of RW packages and changes in the state of conditioned RW.

42. The NPP design shall provide for the methods and means for radiological and in-process control of SRW characteristics including SRW quality control at all stages of their treatment particularly:

SRW in the course of segregation in accordance with their classification;

SRW supplied for processing and conditioning;

SRW (RW packages) after processing and conditioning.

43. Collection of spent closed radionuclide sources classified as SRW shall be carried out separately from other SRW in dedicated rooms. Spent closed radionuclide sources are subject to collection in certified transport packings.

Methods and means for treatment of closed radionuclide sources classified as SRW shall eliminate any damage to their integrity.

 

Gaseous radioactive waste management systems

 

44. GRW management systems shall provide purification of gas and aerosol media from any radioactive aerosols, radioactive iodine and its compounds, as well as holdup of inert radioactive gases under normal operation conditions and in case of any NPP operational occurrences up to design basis accidents inclusive.

All potential sources of continuous and periodic GRW supply to the process venting systems and to the air in vented rooms shall be taken into consideration in the design.

45. The NPP design shall provide for gas treatment systems (emergency gas treatment systems) actuated in case of any design basis accidents at the NPP in order to prevent unacceptable radiation exposure for humans and the environment.

46. The NPP design shall provide for the following:

maximum possible decrease of radionuclide content in GRW;

controlled process vents (their consolidation shall be justified);

purification of process vents from radioactive gases and aerosols prior to release into the atmosphere; capacity of the GRW management systems and efficiency of the techniques used shall be substantiated and shall eliminate the possibility for any exceedance of the maximum permissible limits of radioactive substance discharges into the atmospheric air under normal operation conditions and in case of any NPP operational occurrences up to design basis accidents inclusive;

controlled supply of process vents to high ventilation stacks subsequent to their purification and (or) holdup, continuous monitoring of flow, temperature, volumetric activity of the released air and activity of radionuclides included into the list compiled in accordance with the regulations;

the possibility to arrange local gas treatment systems;

regular operability monitoring for the gas treatment systems;

quality control for the equipment of gas treatment systems (for example filters, absorbers, etc.) prior to installation in the gas treatment systems;

means and methods for regular control of the operated gas treatment system equipment compliance with the data sheet specifications; in this case representative sampling shall be provided;

means and methods to prevent generation of explosive hydrogen concentrations (hydrogen afterburning, dilution of hydrogen with inert gases) in the gaseous radioactive waste management systems.

47. Radiological control means for radioactive substance releases into the atmospheric air shall comply with the metrological requirements for measurement particularly with regard to the measurement range, accuracy parameters and maximum permissible errors under normal operation conditions and in case of any operational occurrences including design basis accidents.

 

IV. Safety requirements for operation of

radioactive waste management systems at nuclear power plants

 

48. RW management systems shall be operated in accordance with process regulations and/or manuals developed on the basis of the NPP design.

49. Prior to delivery of nuclear fuel to the NPP conditions for collection, segregation, processing, conditioning, transportation and storage of radioactive wastes in the amounts specified in the NPP design shall be arranged in accordance with the requirements of federal regulations and rules in the area of atomic energy use.

50. The operating organization shall provide for development and implementation of quality assurance programs in the course of RW treatment at the NPP.

51. In the course of the NPP operation the operating organization shall:

organize efficient management of all activities related to operation and maintenance of the RW management systems aimed to prevent accidents and to provide timely RW processing eliminating their unscheduled accumulation;

perform annual analysis of safety in RW treatment;

inform federal executive authorities responsible for state regulation of safety in atomic energy use in a timely manner about any operational occurrences and accidents in the RW management systems;

submit any information on safety assurance in RW treatment to the federal executive authorities responsible for state regulation of safety in atomic energy use in the scope and according to the format prescribed by the above-mentioned authorities.

52. RW shall be transported at the NPP site:

by special-purpose vehicles with sanitary-epidemiological certificates;

along the routes specified in the NPP in accordance with the transportation flow chart for the NPP site;

in special transportation containers with due regard for the transported RW weight and size, physical properties, activity, type of radiation and the dose rate on the outer surface of the containers.

Outside the NPP site radioactive wastes shall be transported in accordance with federal regulations and rules in the area of atomic energy use.

53. In-process RW monitoring and radiological control on all potential paths of radioactivity release from the RW management systems shall be arranged in the course of the NPP operation. Results of in-process RW monitoring and radiological control shall be registered and documented.

54. The operating organization shall arrange accounting and control of radioactive wastes.

55. The NPP management shall provide for:

RW accounting and control;

elimination of any storage of non-conditioned radioactive wastes not stipulated in the NPP design;

operate the NPP with minimal RW generation both in terms of activity and amount;

reduction of the generated RW amount;

enhancement of safety culture and qualification of workers (personnel) through arrangement of the relevant organizational measures;

development of RW management manuals and/or process regulations;

establishment of LRW and SRW generation limits and their regular review with due regard for the positive experience in RW management in accordance with the procedure prescribed by the operating organization;

prevention of uncontrolled radioactive substance discharges into the atmospheric air and radioactive substance discharges to water bodies, aquifers, pits, wells, boreholes, on the ground surface as well as into soil systems and open drains;

effective system for registration, maintenance and storage of documentation on RW management;

development of measures for prevention of any possible accidents in the RW management systems and mitigation of their consequences;

bringing of RW into compliance with acceptance criteria for disposal prior to expiry of the interim storage time limits and their delivery to the national operator;

development of data sheets for any package (a batch of unpacked radioactive wastes) sent for disposal in accordance with the requirements established by federal laws and regulations in the area of atomic energy use.

 

 

 

 


Возврат к списку


ядерная и радиационная безопасность

Ежеквартальный научно-практический журнал
«Ядерная и радиационная безопасность»